In this the final part of our LNG response series author John Frame provides practical advice on extinguishing media usage, and recommends that industry issue a definitive set of fire and control test results for LNG. An impossible dream, perhaps?

Bill Campbell, retired HSE Group Auditor for Shell International – a renowned expert on offshore platform safety issues – discusses if the risk levels onboard Deepwater Horizon in advance of the April 20th explosions were acceptable.

Road tunnels face both fire safety and security challenges because of their complex infrastructure, fire hazards produced from traffic accidents and potential terrorist threats. Interest in the use of the automatic video image detection (VID) system for road tunnel protection is increased, because of its quick response to the fire or security incident, and real time video images for use in monitoring events, and in guiding evacuation, rescue and firefighting. Many tunnels are already equipped with VID systems for traffic managements and for security protection.

How can the emergency services together with the local government create a tunnel, which makes a safe rescue operation in case of an emergency possible? That is the challenge The Hague County Fire Department faces in various tunnel projects. The commander of The Hague County Fire Department has a dual position, also being the independent tunnel safety advisor. Based on the national and international regulations The Hague County Fire Department developed it’s own approach, where risk management, process management and management of expectations are the key factors.

VID Fire-Kill did in April and May 2009 conduct a series of large full scale Tunnel Fire Tests in the Runehammer Tunnel. The tunnel is an abandoned 9m wide, 6m high and 1600m long two driving lane rock tunnel located in Åndalsness on the west coast of Norway.

It is indisputable that tunnelling is one of the fields with the highest potential of risks and dangers in the entire building and construction industry.
Thus exits a wide range of experiences, studies, guidelines and acts referring to the safety topic. However, this applies to a large extend only to the operating phase of tunnels. There is still a lack of generally accepted and detailed rules, standards and measurements for safety at the construction phase of tunnelling projects.
Thereby, a sophisticated safety management which spans all project phases can help to reduce time consumption and cost as well as it can lead to a higher level of safety on construction sites. Consequently a deliberate safety conception can significantly contribute to the added value of a tunnelling project.

In recent years many countries have changed their requirements for ventilating road tunnels in an emergency. Traditional linear exhaust systems are no longer permitted; the smoke has to be exhausted from the tunnel close to the fire. The design of this new ventilation system requires different treatment in many ways.

Tunnel accidents are challenges for all rescue services specially fire fighters. Fire fighters have to rescue persons and extinguish fires in a situation with partly unknown boundary conditions. This report is concerned with a comprehensive integrated training programme for the fire brigades covering tunnel insets.

In order to allow proper management of emergencies in road tunnels, a project is currently being developed by the GIDAI Group of University of Cantabria, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Transport. The main purpose of this project is to develop a Decision Support System for the management of emergencies in road tunnels. This system consists of three basic models: an Infrequent Events Model, an Egress and Intervention Model and a Decision Making Model. In this paper, only the Infrequent Events Model is described. This model is developed primarily using methods such as Black Box, Boolean Algebra and Probability Theory. Mathematical equations related to the output and input variables as well as the corresponding computational model are described in detail.

Although automatic fire detection is used in road tunnels since the late sixties, the subject has been of growing importance since the big tunnel fires in 1999 / 2001. Besides introduction of new detection technologies, safety and reliability of these systems is an important issue. On one side early detection versus fault alarm rate has to be considered. On the other hand automatic detection versus control room decision is a subject. And another question is how much redundancy can be put into the budget? This paper gives an overview on actual tunnel fire detection systems including their safety and reliability features.

As stated in the presentation ‘Magic Numbers in Tunnel Fire Safety’ [1] during the ISTSS2008, there is a need for another approach for determining safety requirements and designing safety systems for tunnels. In this article an approach is presented to determine the main safety functions and requirements for a tunnel, in order to analyse and to verify from a functional point of view whether the tunnel can be regarded as safe; both in the design phase and during operation. This approach was used in 2009 to determine a set of high level safety requirements for the development of the N201Waterwolf Road tunnel in the Netherlands. This tunnel is presently under construction and due to open in 2011. These high level requirements were utilised to validate the safety level for this tunnel.

Efficiency of smoke management system in short (up to 300 m) tunnels was evaluated by CFD simulation of typical two-way railway tunnel using FDS5 software developed by NIST, USA. In the framework of the present study we identified the worst-case scenario for fire accident in short tunnel; determined HRR curve development versus time; designated parameters for fire simulation depending on flammable materials; provided sensitivity analysis of a numerical solution optimizing the mesh size close to the fire source and in the other areas of researched tunnel; proposed different alternative smoke evacuation methods as follows: (1) natural, (2) non-mechanical with chimneys (cut-and-cover tunnels only), (3) non-mechanical with improved portals geometry, (4) non-mechanical with division of the tunnel volume by top and bottom spaces, and (5) mechanical using jet fans; optimized and performed feasibility study for each of these methods. Our analysis demonstrates that non-mechanical ventilation with chimneys would be the most cost-effective, while the best smoke management may be achieved by tunnel space division. Improving portal geometry allows significant increase of the time period satisfying appropriate standards tenable criteria requirements.

Safety is a key factor in tunnel design. Therefore, the design should be based on a sound, cohesive and comprehensive safety concept, right from the start. The safety concept starts at the system level, involving not only the tunnel itself, but also other system elements such as vehicles, drivers and future tunnel operation and emergency response procedures. The safety concept therefore facilitates the coordination of the tunnel design with these other system elements.

This paper presents a three level safety concept, providing a generic framework that can be used to develop a tailor-made safety concept for a specific tunnel.

A research study was conducted at the National Research Council of Canada to evaluate the effect of different parameters on the performance of emergency ventilation systems in the event of a fire in a section of a road tunnel. The parameters included: tunnel cross-section width and height, tunnel slope, fire size and location, meteorological conditions, and modes of fan operation. The study aimed at assessing the ability of in-place emergency ventilation strategies to control smoke spread and minimize its impact on tunnel users using both numerical and experimental approaches. Four field fire experiments and eight numerical simulations were conducted. Based on the study results, recommendations were made to optimize the ventilation strategies in the tunnel section. This article describes the conducted in-situ fire tests and presents test measurements used to provide the initial and boundary conditions for the numerical simulations.

Preparing and using of main requirement and equipments to protect of passengers and national capitals in critical situation are main purpose of metro managers .derailing of trains, train incidents, fire occurring, suicide, are general problem in Tunnel and subway stations therefore Metro stations must have modern safety and security equipments also role of construction problem related to safety in tunnel and tunnel stability are discussed. This paper explains about the most important factors of metro tunnels safety and importance of Safety and security to improve the more comfortable services in metro tunnel and subway stations.

Fire-fighting and rescue in tunnels is significantly more demanding for fire brigades than building fires. This results in particular from the fact that the available area of heat exhaust openings is much smaller, leading to exceptionally high temperatures even in longer distances from the fire source.

The design of tunnel ventilation and other fire safety systems for rail tunnels and stations depend upon knowledge of the heat and smoke production rate from the rail car. This process involves the determination of material fire properties of the railcar materials, predicting the fire growth based upon the size of the initiating fire, and determining the heat and smoke generation rate history of the car. This paper discusses a methodology that can be used to predict railcar heat release rates and discusses the key concepts that impact the results.

Research regarding fire safety in mines has so far mainly been directed towards coal mines. Thus the need for recommendations, simulation models, engineering tools etc for non-coal underground mines are in great demand. This paper is part of a larger ongoing research project aimed at improving the fire safety in underground mines in order to obtain a safer working environment for the people working for the mining companies in Sweden or for visitors in mines open to the public.

The global warming debate forces the vehicle industry to come up with new environmentally friendly solutions. In 10 years time, or even faster depending on the pressure from different governments in particular in Europe, vehicles will not only use gasoline, diesel and LPG, but also CNG, Hydrogen, ethanol, DME and other bio-fuels, as well as batteries and fuel cells.

Three major fire incidents have occurred in the Channel Tunnel since it opened in the early 90s. The fires on the 18th of November 1996 and the 11th of September 2008 grew to involve many heavy goods vehicles (HGV) on carrier wagons and caused major damage to the tunnel structure. The fire on the 21st of August 2006 involved only a single HGV and did not spread, although the adjacent HGV was damaged by heat. Each of these incidents is described and the incidents are compared.

In case of a fire or the release of an airborne toxin by a terrorist attack in a subway station or tunnel, information on the dispersion of the hazardous substance is important for the rescue operation because it helps to decide which parts of the subway system can be expected to be contaminated. The goal of the ongoing OrGaMIR project is to provide the operating company and rescue forces with this information. In order to predict the dispersion, airflow and thermal conditions inside selected stations in different subway systems are monitored. A number of SF6 tracer gas experiments were conducted to investigate the spatial and time dependent contamination of the underground air by smoke or toxins. The paper describes the main results of three tracer gas experiments in different subway systems which are characterized by different building structures and ventilation influences.

The ventilation design criteria for both road and rail tunnel is based on the design fire defined by the standards and the general knowledge about smoke propagation. The problem of such an approach is that it considers only the impact on the safety ventilation of the smoke propagation and dispersion inside the tunnel excluding other possible accident.

This paper presents a novel and fast modelling approach to simulate tunnel ventilation flows during fire emergencies. The complexity and high cost of full CFD models and the inaccuracies of simplistic zone or analytical models are avoided by efficiently combining mono-dimensional (1D) and CFD (3D) modelling techniques. A simple 1D network approach is used to model tunnel regions where the flow is fully developed (far field), and a detailed CFD representation is used where flow conditions require 3D resolution (near field).

This paper presents new analytical solutions for the critical velocity for smoke control in tunnels and cross-passages. These analytical solutions for the critical velocity dispense with the need to solve for two coupled non-linear equations, and avoid the drawbacks associated with iterative approaches to solving for such equations. The paper also discusses the use of the critical velocity concept in road, rail and metro tunnels, both as a design objective and also as a target for emergency operations. It concludes that there are significant drawbacks in the generation of tunnel air velocities in excess of the critical velocity, due to the increased risks of fire growth and the destruction of any smoke stratification. The importance of tunnel ventilation control in emergency scenarios is therefore emphasised.

An analysis, based on two different series of model scale tests, of the effects of ventilation on maximum heat release rate and fire growth rates is presented. In both model scale test series, wood cribs of different porosity, size and numbers were used. Both ambient free burn tests and tests inside a model-scale tunnel were performed. The tunnels varied from 0.3 m to 0.6 m in width and from 0.2 m to 0.4 m in height. The longitudinal velocity varied between 0.22 m/s and 1.12 m/s.

The last decades a great deal of research has been performed regarding different fields of fire safety and fire development in existing tunnels. During constructions of tunnels the physical conditions of the establishment as well as the fire load, the possibilities to evacuate and perform a fire and rescue operation are essentially separated from the conditions in the opened tunnel. During the construction phase, the safety installations prior to the finished state, often is not yet installed or in function.

Incident management relies heavily on maximizing system integration during an incident. Understanding how the tunnel systems can be utilized by Incident Command and how those systems define the limits of emergency response strategy and tactics is the purpose of this paper.

Water-based fixed fire fighting systems (WFFFS) are now considered to be an option for mitigating the effects of tunnel fires as these systems can control the fire and prevent fire spread. The mitigation effects can be enhanced when WFFFS is used with ventilation systems. There is a great need to study the interaction between WFFFS and ventilation systems; and to identify design elements for both systems to make them efficient. This paper presents results from a preliminary test conducted in a full-scale laboratory tunnel furnished with a sprinkler system. The absolute cooling effect and radiation attenuation were examined by activating the sprinkler system over a propane fire which generated a constant HRR. The test examined the effectiveness of the longitudinal ventilation system with the sprinkler system active. The paper also discusses the impact of the water vapour on the measurement of HRR, which uses oxygen consumption calorimetry.

A test procedure for evaluating the fire protection performance of water-based fixed fire fighting systems for passenger train and metro cars will be presented. Well defined materials are applied in both test configurations that are intended to provide realistic but conservative fire scenarios for the applications. Results are presented for two different water mist systems tested according to the proposed test procedure. Water mist systems are an attractive choice for these applications specifically due to their lower weight and space requirements.

The Project SOLIT – Safety of Life in Tunnels was sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) of Germany. The main content was the development and the test of a high pressure water mist system for fire fighting in tunnels. The protection objectives were the following:
- Improving the chances of self-rescue for involved persons,
- Preventing any further progression of the fire,
- Enabling the fire brigade to rescue injured persons, permitting to carry out remaining
extinguishing activities
- Protection of the tunnel construction.

This paper summarises a series of large-scale fire suppression tests conducted to simulate a fire in the trailer of a heavy goods freight truck on a ro-ro deck. The tests were conducted with a traditional deluge water spray system as well as a deluge high-pressure water mist system and the test results are relevant for roadway tunnels. Parameters such as the water discharge density, the system operating pressure, the nozzle K-factor and whether the fire was fully exposed to the water spray or shielded were varied. The total and convective heat release rate of the fire was measured in order to determine the fire suppression and fire control capabilities of the tested systems.

Traffic volume on the road network and therefore through tunnels continues to grow, as does the number of transports of hazardous substances. This has adverse effects on the availability, maintenance and safety of the road network, now as well as in the future. TNO continuously develops concepts for innovative construction methods, to address these issues. With respect to tunnel fire safety a concept named ‘sponge concrete’ was developed which addresses the risk of pool fires in tunnel.

The aim of this research is to assess, through a scientific experimental program, the behaviour under the increased hydrocarbon temperature/time curve, of concrete structures protected by calcium alumina silicates panels developed and produced by a special mineral and matrix engineering technology for a resistance to these conditions of temperature.
The principal investigations on this research are focussed on: the influence of the thickness of the protection on the temperature gradient and behaviour of the concrete; the nature of the concrete and in particular the nature of the aggregates which impacts on the thermal diffusivity of the concrete and the sensitivity with respect to spalling, the implementation or not of a compressive stress on bottom fibre of the slab exposed to fire.

The modern, reliability-based service life design for tunnels is implemented in most new designs and in redesign of existing structures and has been adopted by national authorities and individual clients in countries all over the world. Currently there are no real standards on how to design concrete for a specific design life. The current concrete codes are recommending various mix designs and reinforcement cover for design life of approx. 50 years.

In the last decade, fire safety of tunnels has become a point of major, international concern. One of the aspects that has recently been studied in this respect is the repairability of immersed tunnels after fire. Concerned about this issue, the Ministry of Transport in the Netherlands commissioned, a couple of years ago, a tentative study into the development of cracks, especially focussing at the unexposed (extrados) side of immersed tunnels, since at those locations repair options are limited.

The phase from the design to the operation of tunnels for railbound public transportation systems proves to be extremely protracted in practice. This is due to the necessary approval procedures and extremely different appraisals pertaining to safety for instance. The design phase can be appreciably reduced if a standard emergency scenario is presented, for which a suitable safety concept must be available. Experts then decide on the case of fire as a standard scenario from possible emergency scenarios by dint of which the required safety considerations are to be carried out for new structures so that a standard basis for planning is created in Germany. The principal approach is shown for example for designing underground stations so that persons can rescue themselves and be rescued through establishing short evacuation periods and long smoke proliferation periods.

A priority research programme on human factors and organisational aspects was conducted by CETU from 2004 to 2008. The objectives of this research were to improve our knowledge regarding human behaviour in order to optimize the actions related to road tunnel safety. It aimed at understanding human behaviour in view of acting towards: the user, the operator as well as the emergency service, and the tunnel (design of the civil engineering and the equipment, definition of the operating procedures). To be more precise, the aim was to improve our knowledge of the behaviour of the various actors involved in safety (users, operators, emergency services) and of its determinants in order to optimize the design of the tunnel, the communication and the training of these actors. The main results from this research programme are presented in the paper.

Experiments have shown that the evacuation characteristics in complex environments differ significantly from evacuation in public buildings. This has to do with, for example, the necessity to move along paths that may not be optimal for evacuation, i.e., movement on ladders and through narrow passages. In some cases, protective clothing has to be removed before evacuation can be initiated, which means that the pre-movement time can be quite long. Another difference compared to public building evacuations is that the attitudes among the workers towards fire safety education and safety drills is sometimes very negative. Results from an evacuation experiment from an environment identified as complex are presented; evacuation from a tunnel boring machine (TBM) where refuge chambers were used. In addition, some preliminary modelling results are presented for the tunnel in question. The paper will focus on evacuation in complex environments and, more specifically, it will attempt to
- identify movement characteristics for people in complex environments,
- discuss technical measures that can improve evacuation, and
- suggest management procedures that can improve evacuation

There are plans to exploit the area above an urban motorway road tunnel in the northern part of Stockholm city for building workplaces and possibly also dwelling houses. Since the motorway is a primary transport route for dangerous goods a risk may arise from an accidental explosion inside the tunnel. As a support of the risk analysis process and to provide support for the design of reinforced concrete structures such as tunnel walls and roof, the consequences of explosions in the tunnel were

Physical modeling utilizing a geotechnical centrifuge was done to study the effects of explosions on underground tunnels. Centrifuge modeling allows the study of the effects of a large explosion on prototype scale, through experiments using smaller explosives, using scaled models of actual structures. Blasts scale to the third power of gravity (g). For example a one gram charge in a model subjected to 100 g’s is equal to a ton of prototype (full scale) explosives.

Scaled models of tunnels were tested in a geotechnical centrifuge under various conditions. The tunnels were tested at different burial depths, and tunnels were tested using protective coatings around the tunnels to attempt to mitigate the effects of blasts. Tests were also conducted in dry soil as well as underwater, for example a river bed. The effects of the explosions on the structures were recorded in the form of strain measurements taken at different locations on the underground structures at different times-before, during and after the explosions.

The results of the experiments provide valuable understanding of the effects of surface explosions on underground structures such as tunnels and pipelines. The results are useful for designing new underground structures as well as for developing protective retrofits for existing structures. The results can also be useful for developing, validating and calibrating numerical models.

iNTeg-Risk, acronym for Early Recognition, Monitoring and Integrated Management of Emerging, New Technology Related Risks, is an FP7 Collaborative Project implemented as a large scale integrating project. 64 partners are working together for a duration of 54 months from December 2008 to May 2013. The overall budget is about 19.3 million Euro.

iNTeg-Risk coordinates research and development sub-projects related to new materials and technologies for establishing a common EU approach to face the challenge of emerging risks within the next 15 years.

The effectiveness of a sprinkler/water mist system to prevent a BLEVE in a LPG tank truck in a tunnel fire was verified in a series of large scale fire tests in the Runehamar test tunnel in Norway. A full-size LPG tank, partially filled with water, was placed in the tunnel and subjected to a series of large cargo and pool-fires located closely upstream from the tank. The thermal conditions around the tank and the thermal response of both the tank's surface and its bulk were measured and the risk of a BLEVE was predicted from these measurements.

Only when the limits of the water mist system were sought, by purposely delaying the activation time with about 7 minutes, there proved to be a serious risk of a BLEVE. This occurred after 400s in one fire test with a cargo consisting of 720 stacked pallets. In all other tests the fire was extinguished or controlled quickly enough to prevent a BLEVE. Quick detection and extinguishment of the fire was shown to be especially important with a pool fire, due to the fast increase of the temperature around the tank to about 1000oC.

In Taiwan, approximately two thirds of the terrain is mountainous. To promote economic development in rural areas, long road tunnels have been built and a new expressway project is planning to be built. The new expressway project includes nine tunnels (tunnel group) connected by bridges, six of which are longer than 3km, and the longest of which is about 10km. Fire safety management for the tunnel group is much more difficult and complex than that for a single long road tunnel. This work presents a fire safety assessment protocol for an existing tunnel and a new tunnel in Taiwan based on a literature reviews, experts consultations and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The existing Hsuehshan Tunnel and a new tunnel group, the East Coast Expressway Tunnels, were selected as a case study in this research. The findings of this study provide a model for assessing whether appropriate fire safety facilities are installed in the existing and new tunnels in Taiwan.

This paper describes part of a risk analysis that was done for a major urban road tunnel to see if there were significant differences in risk level depending of the type of HGV traffic that were allowed into the tunnel. The paper specifically describes the consequence analysis that was performed.

Application of European Directive 2004/54/EC to road tunnels (over 500 m length on the trans-European road network) makes it necessary to perform risk analysis. Such risk analysis is also part of the safety documentation which is submitted to Administrative Authority for the operational approval of each tunnel. The Directive specifies a number of cases where risk analysis is required, and requires a Specific Hazard Investigation for all tunnels.
Scenario-based and system-based risk analyses are the two main methodologies of risk analysis used for road tunnels. For the Driskos tunnel, situated near Ioannina in Greece in Egnatia Odos motorway, both methodologies have been applied:
• A scenario-based method has been used for the Specific Hazard Investigation (which aims at studying all kinds of risks);
• A system-based risk analysis has been performed to support the decision about restrictions or not of the transport of Dangerous Goods (DG) in the Driskos tunnel.
The compared advantages and limitations of each type of methodology have been widely discussed. This paper focuses on, using the Driskos tunnel risk analyses as reference, relevance and limits of each type of methodology, taking into account the unavoidable uncertainties of the collected data and the risk analyses themselves.

There are several “magic numbers” available in fire engineering literature, determined on expert judgement or statistical data collected about experiments or real fires reports, which can be regarded as design values for a certain fire scenario, e.g. the curve and the peak value of the HRR arising from the fire of a car or a wood pallet, as other fundamental parameters characterizing a fire scenario [1].

The choice of a certain “reference scenario” among a class of possible fire scenarios, the lack of knowledge and the randomness about the phenomena involved, are different sources of uncertainty affecting the outputs of any quantitative fire threat assessment.

In the Austrian guideline “RVS 09.03.11” the Austrian Tunnel Risk Analysis Model “TuRisMo” defines how to assess the risk for tunnel users. The same guideline stipulates that the specific risk involved in the transport of Dangerous Goods (DG) through road tunnels should be assessed in a separate process. Consequently, based upon EC-Directive 2004/54/EC and the Austrian Road Tunnel Safety Law, a uniform risk assessment procedure for the transport of dangerous goods through road tunnels has been developed. For a methodic risk analysis approach, the OECD/PIARC-Model DGQRAM was chosen.

In a first part of the objective study, a simplified risk assessment approach was elaborated. In 2009 another research project was initiated on behalf of the Austrian Ministry of Traffic, Innovation and Technology with the objective of developing a complete risk evaluation procedure. The results shall be published in another Austrian “RVS” guideline.

This research project is supported by a working group including experts from the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology, the Austrian Ministry of Internal Affairs, federal Authorities, fire brigade, transport industry and consultants.

The main objectives of this research project are the verification of existing DG transport data, the development of a risk assessment process in line with the new ADR tunnel regulations and the definition of acceptance criteria for each level of investigation (step-by-step process).

The international consensus on the benefits of active fire protection in tunnels has changed from being against the idea to one of guarded support. The most influential international standards, PIARC and NFPA, now contain positive remarks about active fire protection systems, even if they stop short of recommending them in all new tunnels. It has been recognised that active fire protection systems can limit the size of a fire so that ventilation systems will be able to handle it and fire-fighters will be able to approach to complete extinguishment. In addition it is recognised that active fire protection systems will limit damage to the tunnel in the event of fire, so that even a fire involving several heavy goods vehicles will not close the tunnel for a lengthy period. While the consensus has moved, there is still much debate about when an active fire protection system is appropriate; to what extent it can be assumed to limit the maximum heat release rate; and to what extent it will limit the maximum tunnel lining temperatures and so reduce the specification for passive structural fire protection. Surprisingly, given that over 100 tunnels are now fitted with an active fire protection system, there is also debate over the initial installation costs and the running costs. As these issues are addressed, using data, a consensus will emerge. Meanwhile most European countries now routinely consider whether to fix an active fire protection system in new tunnels, and some are considering whether active fire protection systems can be used to upgrade fire safety in existing tunnels. Looking ahead, research projects are investigating to what extent an active fire protection system can limit the maximum heat release rate; whether an active fire protection system combined with longitudinal ventilation offers equal or better life safety than transverse ventilation; and how to specify design or performance test criteria for tunnel active fire protection systems.

Environmental issues such as climate change and scarcity of resources have forced the development of new energy carriers for vehicles. This also means that there will be an increase in the number of vehicles running on these new energy carriers in tunnels and other confined spaces. New energy carriers do not necessarily mean higher risks, but they do represent a new situation and imply new risks. These risks need to be evaluated and considered. The mixture of different energy carriers (flammable liquids, gases lighter than air, gases denser than air, batteries, etc.) can also constitute a risk itself, since there are situations where different safety measures need to be taken depending on the energy carrier used and the scenario in question.

In this paper some selected new energy carriers are described, in terms of trends and properties. Some countries have restrictions on the use of some energy carriers in confined spaces. These restrictions are presented. Vehicles are involved in accidents, so also vehicles running on new energy carriers. Some vehicle fires involving new energy carriers are presented and discussed in the paper. It is important to learn from these accidents. It is also important that safety issues related to the use of new energy carriers in tunnels are considered, investigated and reported. Systems, not only components, need to be tested to study different possible scenarios and to develop models for these scenarios. When the scenarios are described in a representative way, technical safety solutions, mitigations systems, and rescue service tactics can be developed. It is also important to study how the different systems(detection, ventilation, mitigation) interact and how the models should be altered depending on the scenario.

Explosives and explosive materials can be used for good purposes such as quarrying, tunneling, mining, and removal of obstacles. Explosives can also be used for nefarious purposes. The following groups have all used explosives with the intent to kill, maim, or destroy, White Supremacists/Anti Government Extremists, Terrorists, Disgruntled Employees, Disgruntled Consumers, Criminals (Drug or Financially Motivated), Emotionally Disturbed Persons, and Eco Terrorists. Their motivations can be classified into several primary areas: experimentation, vandalism, excitement, revenge, ideology, criminal enterprise, diversion/distraction, mentally disordered, and finally mixed motives.

Most professionals have a limited knowledge of explosives, explosive forces, and the related damage and injuries which can occur in an event where explosives have been utilized. This presentation will inform you of the different types of explosives, related blast dynamics, and the medical issues related to a blast event.

  • Operation Florian

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